Tuesday, August 12, 2014

"Mass of the Assumption: Fontgombault"

In honor of the August 15 Feast of Saint Mary the Virgin, the Mother of Our Lord Jesus Christ, here's another very pretty recording from Fontgombault (a  daughter-abbey of Solesmes); this video contains the Introit, Kyrie IX, the Alleluia, and the Communio. 

Here are the words to the Introit, the Alleluia, and the Communio; chant scores in Latin along with English translations:
The Introit, Signum Magnum

A great sign appeared in heaven: A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars. -- Sing ye to the Lord a new canticle: because He hath done wonderful things. V.: Glory be to the Father . . . -- A great sign appeared in heaven . . . (From Revelation 12)

The Alleluia, Assumpta est

Alleluia, Alleluia. Mary has been taken up into heaven; the host of Angels rejoices. Alleluia.

The Communio, Beatam me dicent

All generations shall call me blessed, because He that is mighty hath done great things for me. (From The Magnificat, in Luke 1.)

Here's a listing of all the mass chant propers for this feast, from ChristusRex.org; the links go to mp3 files and chant scores.
Die 15 augusti
In Assumptione
B. Mariæ Virginis
Introitus: Apoc. 12, 1; Ps. 97 Signum magnum (cum gloria Patri) (4m11.0s - 1471 kb) score
Graduale: Ps. 44, 11.12 V. 5 Audi, filia (3m18.3s - 1163 kb) score
Alleluia: Assumpta est (2m09.7s - 761 kb) score
Offertorium: Assumpta est (1m43.2s - 606 kb)
Communio: Luc. 1, 48.49 Beatam me dicent (47.9s - 281 kb) score

From the YouTube page:
+J.M.J.+ Gregorian Chant for the Mass of the Assumption - Monastic Choir of the Abbey of Notre- Dame de Fontgombault. The Introit, Alleluia, and Holy Communion sung Propers, and Kyrie IX are part of a High Mass of the Assumption. Chanted by the Monastic Choir of the Abbey Notre-Dame de Fontgombault, France. Originally recorded and released in 1973, by Jean Allard. Arranged for CD in 1997 by Jean-Yves Martineau.

To buy the original full version of "Fons Amoris" on DVD go to: http://www.exaltavit.com/documentaire...

To buy the full version music CD, and other Gregorian Chant CDs recorded at the Abbey of Notre Dame de Fontgombault, visit this website:

Click this link for the Introit, Alleluia, and Holy Communion translations: http://romaaeterna.jp/liber2/grt1_137...
The Kyrie is taken from Mass IX (9), and translates from Greek as: Lord have mercy, Christ have mercy, Lord have mercy.

Friday, August 08, 2014

O Frondens Virga (Hildegard von Bingen 1098-1179)

Chanticleer shared this video on their socmed feeds this past week:

Here are the Latin words of the antiphon:
O frondens virga,
In tua nobilitate stans,
sicut aurora procedit.
Nunc gaude et laetare et nos debiles dignare
a mala consuetudine liberare,
atque manum tuam porrige ad erigendum nos. 

Here's one English translation of this (link is a PDF):
O branch, coming into leaf,
standing in your nobility
just as dawn advances:
now rejoice and be glad
and deem us, helpless ones, worthy;
free us from evil habits
and even reach out your hand
to lift us.

Tuesday, August 05, 2014

The Introit for the Feast of the Transfiguration (August 6): Tibi dixit cor meum ("My heart declared unto you")

I've written a bit about this Introit, Tibi dixit cor meum quaesivi vultum tuum, before, but here's a full post about it.   This is one of the few instances of the duplication of an Introit; this is also the Introit for the Second Sunday in Lent.

The Lent connection isn't crazy; the Transfiguration comes chronologically just before Jesus' entry into Jerusalem, before his arrest and Crucifixion.  In any case, it seems that Matthew's gospel story of the Transfiguration is read on Lent 2 in the Catholic Church, so putting the Introit here makes complete sense.

Here's the Introit score, from JoguesChant, which gives the translation as:
My heart declared to you: "Your countenance have I sought; I shall ever seek your countenance, O Lord; do not turn your face from me."  The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear?

The São Paulo Benedictines note that this text comes from Psalm 27, vv 8-9, and 1:
8 My heart says of you, "Seek his face!"
Your face, LORD, I will seek.

9 Do not hide your face from me,
do not turn your servant away in anger;
you have been my helper.
Do not reject me or forsake me,
O God my Savior.

1 The LORD is my light and my salvation—
whom shall I fear?
The LORD is the stronghold of my life—
of whom shall I be afraid?

The Introit in former times (i.e., in the Tridentine Rite) was Illuxerunt coruscationes:
Illuxerunt coruscationes tuae orbi terrae: commota est, et contremuit terra. * Quam dilecta tabernacula tua, Domine virtutum! concupiscit et deficit anima mea in atria Domini.

Your lightening illumined the world; the earth quivered and quaked.
How lovely is Your dwelling place, O Lord of Hosts! My soul yearns and pines for the courts of the Lord.

(Psalm 76:19 and 83:2-3)
Cannot find a recording of this anywhere, but here's the chant score:

The readings for today are here.  They are:

The Exodus readings is the "transfiguration of Moses"":  "As he came down from the mountain with the two tablets of the covenant in his hand, Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because he had been talking with God."   

This comes from the 2 Peter reading:
For we did not follow cleverly devised myths when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we had been eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received honor and glory from God the Father when that voice was conveyed to him by the Majestic Glory, saying, "This is my Son, my Beloved, with whom I am well pleased." We ourselves heard this voice come from heaven, while we were with him on the holy mountain.

So we have the prophetic message more fully confirmed. You will do well to be attentive to this as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. First of all you must understand this, that no prophecy of scripture is a matter of one's own interpretation, because no prophecy ever came by human will, but men and women moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.

The Gospel, of course, is the Transfiguration story itself, from Luke.

The Collect is this beautiful one:
O God, who on the holy mount revealed to chosen witnesses your well-beloved Son, wonderfully transfigured, in raiment white and glistening: Mercifully grant that we, being delivered from the disquietude of this world, may by faith behold the King in his beauty; who with you, O Father, and you, O Holy Spirit, lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

Stephen Gerth, the Rector at St. Mary the Virgin, NY, writes this week about Transfiguration, and includes a really interesting take on how it might relate to a section of Mark that comes just before the Transfiguration story - a passage that gives some people trouble:
When I was in seminary the standard thinking about the transfiguration, recounted in Mark, Matthew and Luke, was that it was a post-resurrection appearance that had come to be a part of the pre-passion narrative in the telling of the story of Jesus. It turns out that while I was learning one thing the scholarship was heading in a new direction, more faithful to the text and more convincing.

In 1981 Enrique Nardoni (1924–2002), Roman Catholic priest and biblical scholar, surveying the history of interpretation, changed the direction of the debate with an analysis of Mark (9:1-13). He was able to show that the story was very much a part of Mark’s ongoing narrative of the Good News (“A Redactional Interpretation of Mark 9:1,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 43 [1981] 265-384).

In Mark, the story of the transfiguration follows Peter’s answer to Jesus’ question to the disciples, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter responds, “You are the Christ.” Peter doesn’t like what follows: Jesus’ prediction of his suffering, death, and resurrection. He responds by taking Jesus aside and “rebuking” him. The other disciples are close. Jesus turns so that all can hear him say, “Get behind me, Satan! For you are not on the side of God, but of men” (Mark 8:27-33).

Before the next story, the transfiguration, Mark’s narrative addresses directly the situation of Christians when he was writing. It was a time of persecution. Jesus said,

Whoever wishes to come after me must deny himself or herself, take up his or her cross, and follow me. For whoever wishes to save his or her life will lose it, but whoever loses his or her life for my sake and that of the gospel will save it.

What profit is there for one to gain the whole world and forfeit his or her life? What could one give in exchange for his or her life? Whoever is ashamed of me and of my words in this faithless and sinful generation, the Son of Man will be ashamed of when he comes in his Father’s glory with the holy angels.” (Mark 8:34-38)

Then, comes the difficult verse that causes so much debate, “He also said to them, ‘Amen, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see that the kingdom of God has come in power’” (Mark 9:1). The Risen Jesus did not return to establish the complete reign of God over creation. The word we have come to use for this return is “parousia.” It’s English for the Greek word παρουσία which Paul uses for the return of Jesus at the end of time in his First Letter to the Thessalonians, the oldest New Testament writing. (It’s also used in nine other New Testament books).

By the time Mark wrote almost certainly most, if not all of the disciples who heard Jesus speak these words, had died. With the story of Jesus revealing his heavenly glory one can say Peter, James and John saw this glory. In the private, personal center of our lives, where Christ has made himself known to us, one might say that we too have seen, each of us in his or her own way, the glory of God.

The subject of just these few verses is a large one. My own study will continue. More can certainly be said—and I have other material for my sermon for the feast, Wednesday, August 6 (Sung Masses at 12:10 PM and 6:00 PM).

When Jesus and the three others came down from the mountain, their journey to glory continued, as does ours in the days God has made for us.—Stephen Gerth

Here are all the chants for the day, from ChristusRex.org:
In Transfiguratione Domini

Introitus: Ps. 26, 8.9 et 1 Tibi dixit cor meum (cum Gloria Patri) (2m59.6s - 2808 kb)
Graduale: Ps. 44, 3 et 2 Speciosus forma (4m20.2s - 4068 kb) score
Alleluia: Sap. 7, 26 Candor est lucis æternæ (2m36.223s - 1223 kb) score
Offertorium: Ps. 8, 6.7 Gloria et honore (1m22.047s - 643 kb) score
Communio: Mt. 17, 9 Visionem (2m36.4s - 2446 kb) score

Here are posts about chant propers for this day on Chantblog:

This is a "mosaic on stucco, portable icon with the Transfiguration of Christ, Byzantine artwork," circa 1200.  It's in the Louvre - in "Moyen-Age, room 1: Charlemagne."  Photo is by Marie-Lan Nguyen.

Friday, August 01, 2014

Cluny: La Transfiguration - Chants de Pierre le Venerable

In anticipation of the upcoming Feast of the Transfiguration (August 6), here is a beautiful collection of 12th-century chants for the day.  (Here's the Amazon.com page for this CD.)

Some explanation from the Amazon page:
Pierre the Venerable was one of the most remarkable men in 12th-century Europe: he was abbot of Cluny (France), the most influential monastery of its day; he sheltered Peter Abelard after the Pope condemned Abelard's teachings; he had the Koran translated into Latin; he defended Jews from persecution. On top of all this, he was a fine composer. The enterprising French ensemble Venance Fortunat performs here Pierre's hymns for the Feast of the Transfiguration. Director Anne-Marie Deschamps uses only unaccompanied voices, generally solo or in unison (occasionally with a drone), without rhythmic pulse but with careful attention paid to long-versus-short note values--in effect, the long notes of basic chant melodies are embellished with Pierre's quick, almost improvisatory ornaments. The impression created by the music and text (and magnified by the extraordinary "Clunisian" acoustic in which the recording was made) is one of intense, rhapsodic devotion--somewhat reminiscent of Hildegard of Bingen, though without her extravagant metaphor and wide vocal ranges. Deschamps and her musicians deserve high praise for finding this music and performing it so sympathetically. -- Matthew Westphal

Amazon offers the track list below; most or all of these pieces are standard Transfiguration chants - like O Nata Lux (the Transfiguration hymn for Lauds) - that have been set to new music.   I will try to find some lyrics to them and post them;  eventually; meantime here is the complete list:
1. Ecce Nubes Lucida
2. Assumens Ihesus
3. Invitatoire
4. Assumptis Hodie
5. Coram Tribus Discipulis
6. Primo Genitus
7. Ihesus Ad Discipulos
8. O Nata Lux De Lumine
9. Antienne: Ton 1. Visionem Quam Vidistis
10. Antienne: Ton 2. Accessit Ihesus
11. Antienne: Ton 3. Ut Testimonium Haberet
12. Antienne: Ton 4. Lex Per Moysen
13. Antienne: Ton 5. Descendentibus Illis
14. Antienne: Ton 6. Celi Aperti Sunt
15. Antienne: Ton 7. Tribus Discipulis
16. Antienne: Ton 8. Celi Aperti Sunt
17. Claruit Magnitudo Dei
18. Hodie In Monte
19. Discipuli Christi
20. Sicut Unius Dei Trinitas
21. Videns Petrus
22. Ave Stella Matutina

"Hail, Star of the Morning"!  Very beautiful stuff here, and now I want to learn more about Pierre le Venerable, too....

Friday, July 25, 2014

Compline: The Choir of Clare College, Cambridge

From the YouTube page:
A service of Compline, sung live by the Choir of Clare College, Cambridge, directed by Graham Ross

Recorded in Chapel of Clare College, Cambridge, UK


Introit: Robert White (1538-1574): 'Christe qui lux es et dies'

Christe qui lux es et dies,
Noctis tenebras detegis,
Lucisque lumen crederis,
Lumen beatum praedicans.

Precamur sancte domine,
Defende nos in hac nocte,
Sit nobis in te requies,
Quietam noctem tribue.

Ne gravis somnus irruat,
Nec hostis nos surripiat,
Nec caro illi consentiens,
Nos tibi reos statuat.

Oculi somnum capiant,
Cor ad te semper vigilet,
Dextera tua protegat
Famulos qui te diligunt.

Defensor noster aspice,
Insidiantes reprime,
Guberna tuos famulos,
Quos sanguine mercatus es.

Memento nostri domine
In gravi isto corpore,
Qui es defensor animae,
Adesto nobis domine.

Deo patri sit gloria,
Ejusque soli filio,
Cum spiritu paraclyto,
Et nunc et in perpetuum. Amen.

Christ, who art the light and day,
You drive away the darkness of night,
You are called the light of light,
For you proclaim the blessed light.

We beseech you, Holy Lord,
Protect us this night.
Let us take our rest in you;
Grant us a tranquil night.

Let our sleep be free from care;
Let not the enemy snatch us away,
Nor flesh conspire within him,
And make us guilty in your sight.

Though our eyes be filled with sleep,
Keep our hearts forever awake to you.
May your right hand protect
Your willing servants.

You who are our shield, behold;
Restrain those that lie in wait.
And guide your servants whom
You have ransomed with your blood.

Remember us, O Lord,
Who bear the burden of this mortal form;
You who are the defender of the soul,
Be near us, O Lord.

Glory be to God the Father,
And to his only Son,
With the Spirit, Comforter,
Both now and evermore. Amen.

Anthem: Josef Rheinberger (1839-1901): 'Abendlied'

Bleib bei uns, denn es will Abend werden, und der Tag hat sich geneiget

Bide with us, for evening shadows darken, and the day will soon be over.

Friday, July 18, 2014

"Psalms 91/121, Prayer of Severus, Praise of Cherubim"

These are some very nice chants posted by "Malankara Syriac Orthodox" at YouTube; this one is actually part of a 22-video playlist, which is well worth listening to all the way through.   The YouTuber writes that these are "Three prayers during the evening prayer."  You can hear the Kyrie at the opening - then the Compline Psalm 91 begins: 

Another YouTuber writes that this is "Sung by Fr. Aju Philip Mathews and Tenny Thomas. © Copyright 2012 Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church."

Here are the texts of the Compline Psalms and the Prayer of Severus, from the website of the Northeast American Diocese of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church:
Psalm 91
You, that sit in the shelter of the Most High, and abide in glory, in the shadow of God.
Say to the Lord: 'My trust and my refuge; the God in whom I confide.'
For He shall deliver you from the snare of stumbling, and from idle talk.
He shall keep you under His feathers, and by His wings, you shall be covered; and His truth shall encompass you like an armor.
You shall not fear from the terror by night, and from the arrow that flies by the day:
And from the voice that travels in the darkness, and from the devastating wind in the noon.
Thousands shall fall at your side, and ten thousands at your right side. They shall not come near to you, but with your eyes you shall see only; You shall see the revenge of the wicked.
(Since you have said), 'Thou art the Lord, my trust, who hast placed Thy abode in the heights.'
There shall no evil come near to you; neither shall any plague draw near to your dwelling place.
For He shall give His angels command concerning you, who shall protect you in all your ways.
And they shall bear you up in their hands, lest your foot stumble.
You shall tread upon the adder and the basilisk; and you shall trample down the lion and the dragon.
(For the Lord has said): 'Since he has sought me, I will deliver him and strengthen him;'
'Since he has known my name he shall call upon me, and I will answer him, and be with him in affliction.' I will strengthen him and honor him. With long life, will I satisfy him, and show him my salvation.

Psalm 121
I will lift up my eyes to the mountain, from whence comes my helper.
My help is from the Lord who has made the heaven and the earth.
He will not suffer your foot to tremble; Your keeper shall not slumber:
For neither slumbers, nor sleeps the keeper of Israel.
The Lord is your keeper. The Lord shall overshadow you with His right hand.
The sun shall not smite you by day; nor the moon by night.
The Lord shall take care of you from all evil; the Lord shall take care of your life.
He shall watch over your exit and your entrance, henceforth forever.
And to You belongs the praise O God. Barekmor.
Glory be to the Father...Halleluiah, Halleluiah, Halleluiah now and always and forever Amen.

Prayer of St. Severus
O Lord who sittest in the secret place of the Most High, shelter us beneath the shadow of the wings of Thy mercy, and have compassion upon us.
Thou, who hearest all things, in Thy loving kindness, hearken to the supplications of Thy servants.
Grant us, O Messiah; our Savior; a peaceful evening and a sinless night, for Thou art a glorious king, and unto Thee, are our eyes lifted up.
Forgive our debts and our sins; have mercy upon us, both in this world and in that to come.
May Thy loving kindness shelter us O Lord, and Thy grace be upon our faces. May Thy cross protect us from the evil one and his hosts.
Let Thy right hand overshadow us all the days of our lives, and Thy peace reign among us, do Thou give hope and salvation to the souls that pray to Thee.
By the prayers of St. Mary, Thy Mother, and of all Thy Saints, O God, forgive us our debts, and have mercy upon us. Amen.

Praise of the Cherubim
† Blessed is the Glory of the Lord, from His place forever;
† Blessed is the Glory of the Lord, from His place forever;
† Blessed is the Glory of the Lord; from His place forever and ever.
Holy and glorious Trinity, have mercy upon us;
Holy and glorious Trinity, have mercy upon us;
Holy and glorious Trinity, have compassion and mercy upon us.
Holy art Thou, and glorious forever,
Holy art Thou, and glorious forever,
Holy art Thou, and blessed is Thy Name forever and ever.
Glory be to Thee, O Lord,
Glory be to Thee, O Lord,
Glory be to Thee, ever our hope, Barekmor.

Our Father who art in Heaven ...

Hail Mary, full of grace ...

Barekmor is apparently Syriac for "Bless me, O Lord."

I've posted video from this YouTuber before; s/he points at the YouTube page to the GoogleSite syrianorthodox.

"Malankara" is a designation applied to the Indian Orthodox Church; the connection with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch is explained in this article:
The Malankara Church is the church of the Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala, India, with particular emphasis on the part of the community that joined Archdeacon Mar Thoma in swearing to resist the authority of the Portuguese Padroado in 1653. This faction soon entered into a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, and was thereafter often known as the Malankara Syrian Church[1] (Malayalam: Malankara Suriyani Sabha).

As part of the Saint Thomas Christian community, the church traced its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.[2] As an independent faction, it originated in the first major split within the Saint Thomas Christian community. Historically, the Thomas Christians had been united in leadership and liturgy, and were part of the Church of the East, based in Persia. However, the collapse of the Church of the East's hierarchy in Asia left the province of India effectively isolated, and through the 16th century, the Portuguese, recently established in Goa, forcefully drew the Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism. Resentment of these measures led the majority of the community to join the archdeacon, Thoma, in swearing never to submit to the Portuguese in the Coonan Cross Oath. Several months later Thoma was ordained as the first indigenous Metropolitan of Malankara.

I'm assuming that "Severus" is St. Severus of Antioch.

Beautiful chant.....

Sunday, July 13, 2014

Anglican Chant XXXIII: Psalm 102 (Domine, exaudi)

A great chant (or two, or three), sung here beautifully by the Choir of Ely Cathedral:

Here's what the YouTuber had to say at the page; the citation includes the words to the Psalm from the Coverdale Psalter:
The Choir of Ely Cathedral, under the direction of David Price & Paul Trepte, sing the hundredth and second Psalm to an Anglican chant for choir and organ. A sorrowful complaint of great afflictions. (1-11) Encouragement by expecting the performances of God's promises to his church. (12-22) The unchangeableness of God. (23-28)


Psalm 102. Domine, exaudi

HEAR my prayer, O Lord : and let my crying come unto thee.
2. Hide not thy face from me in the time of my trouble : incline thine ear unto me when I call; O hear me, and that right soon.
3. For my days are consumed away like smoke : and my bones are burnt up as it were a firebrand.
4. My heart is smitten down, and withered liked grass : so that I forget to eat my bread.
5. For the voice of my groaning : my bones will scarce cleave to my flesh.
6. I am become like a pelican in the wilderness : and like an owl that is in the desert.
7. I have watched, and am even as it were a sparrow : that sitteth alone upon the house-top.
8. Mine enemies revile me all the day long : and they that are mad upon me are sworn together against me.
9. For I have eaten ashes as it were bread : and mingled my drink with weeping;
10. And that because of thine indignation and wrath : for thou hast taken me up, and cast me down.
11. My days are gone like a shadow : and I am withered like grass.
12. But thou, O Lord, shalt endure for ever : and thy remembrance throughout all generations.
13. Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Sion : for it is time that thou have mercy upon her, yea, the time is come.
14. And why? thy servants think upon her stones : and it pitieth them to see her in the dust.
15. The heathen shall fear thy Name, O Lord : and all the kings of the earth thy majesty;
16. When the Lord shall build up Sion : and when his glory shall appear;
17. When he turneth him unto the prayer of the poor destitute : and despiseth not their desire.
18. This shall be written for those that come after : and the people which shall be born shall praise the Lord.
19. For he hath looked down from his sanctuary : out of the heaven did the Lord behold the earth;
20. That he might hear the mournings of such as are in captivity : and deliver the children appointed unto death;
21. That they may declare the Name of the Lord in Sion : and his worship at Jerusalem;
22. When the people are gathered together : and the kingdoms also, to serve the Lord.
23. He brought down my strength in my journey : and shortened my days.
24. But I said, O my God, take me not away in the midst of mine age : as for thy years, they endure throughout all generations.
25. Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth : and the heavens are the work of thy hands.
26. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure : they all shall wax old as doth a garment;
27. And as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed : but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail.
28. The children of thy servants shall continue : and their seed shall stand fast in thy sight.

Recording available on the disk 'Psalms of David: Vol. 8' (Priory Records UK).

At the Priory Records page, the composer listing reads "Ross, Ivor Atkins"; not sure who "Ross" is - perhaps it's R.R.Ross? -  but here's a bit about Ivor Atkins.  Interestingly, the image comes from the Library of Congress:
Sir Ivor Algernon Atkins (29 November 1869 – 26 November 1953) was the choirmaster and organist at Worcester Cathedral for over 50 years (1897-1950). He is well known for editing Allegri's Miserere with the famous top-C part for the treble. He is also well known for The Three Kings, an arrangement of a song by Peter Cornelius as a choral work for Epiphany.

Born into a Welsh musical family at Llandaff, Atkins graduated with a bachelor of music degree from The Queen's College, Oxford in 1892, and subsequently obtained a Doctorate in Music (Oxford). He was assistant organist of Hereford Cathedral (1890-1893) and organist of St Laurence Church, Ludlow from 1893 to 1897.
He composed songs, church music, service settings and anthems. With Edward Elgar he prepared an edition of Bach's St. Matthew Passion. Knighted in 1921 for services to music, Atkins was President of the Royal College of Organists from 1935 to 1936. He died in Worcester.

He was a friend of Edward Elgar, who in 1904 dedicated the third of his Pomp and Circumstance Marches to Atkins.


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